WHO commissioned systematic reviews to synthesize the evidence on the impact of family planning on the health and empowerment of women. A Think Tank meeting was held from 23 to 24 February 2023 to review the evidence and to identify gaps in knowledge. Thirty-four international experts and staff of partner agencies attended the meeting. This commentary highlights knowledge and research gaps that emerged from deliberations at the meeting. We
present these gaps under two main sections: (1) knowledge gaps and future research; and (2) aspects on improving methodologies and interpretation of results.